AGÖF Guidance Values for Volatile Organic Compounds in Indoor Air(28 November 2013 Edition)


1. Introduction

2. Exposure Assessment of Indoor Air Pollutants
3. Data Collection and the Procedure How AGÖF Guidance Values Are Established
4. Assessment of Odorous Compounds
5. Explanatory Notes for the List of AGÖF Guidance Values VOC
6. AGÖF List of Guidance Values VOC
6.1. Abbreviations
6.2. Annotations

English PDF-Version of AGÖF-Guidance Values 2013
German PDF-Version of AGÖF-Guidance Values 2013
German HTML-Version of AGÖF-Guidance Values 2013
  

1. Introduction

In Germany, an Ad Hoc Working Group1 has issued indoor air guideline values since 1993. These are toxicologically based values for individual chemical compounds or compound groups. These guideline values can be used to assess indoor air testing results in terms of their relevance to health. After having published hardly more than 10 such guideline values until 2007, now a total of 36 guideline values for volatile organic compounds have been released until June 2013.2 For the majority of compounds measurable in indoor air, however, the uncertainty of evaluation remains.

For the assessment of indoor air contaminants, the Ad Hoc Working Group suggests a ranking scheme, whereby toxicologically derived guideline values and preliminary statistical estimates are applied to individual compounds and the TVOC. Statistically derived parameters should be updated as timely as possible to reflect the current spectrum of compounds in a given indoor space.3

Based on their decades-long testing experience, the members of the Association of Ecological Research Institutes (AGÖF) have developed a knowledge base about the presence of VOCs and health and odor problems associated with them. To assist in the assessment of indoor air measurements, statistically derived attention values were determined for indoor air; and for the first time in 2004, they were presented to peers in Germany as the AGÖF Guidance Values.4 The guidance values allow classifying testing results according to their statistical probability; consequently, their relevance can also be weighted when searching for causes of health complaints. However, it is not possible to use the guidance values for evaluating a specific health risk.

The publication attracted great interest and formed the basis of a Federal Environment Agency-supported AGÖF research project with the title "Provision of a Database for the Presence of Volatile Organic Compounds in Indoor Air".5 From the results of this research project, AGÖF presented a revised edition of its guidance values for over 150 volatile compounds in the fall of 2007 and also made them available on the AGÖF home page. In addition to statistical parameters such as sampling size, the 50th and 90th percentile, the very detailed table also provided the guidance value. It is this guidance value that indicates the threshold, above which the indoor air concentration of a compound must be considered a problem based on statistical significance or toxicological knowledge.

Ever since experts, consultants, and others have frequently used the guidance values, which quickly have become an effective tool for assessing the hygienic quality of indoor air.

In 2012 another AGÖF research project6, which again was financially supported by the Federal Environment Agency, was launched to update the AGÖF Guidance Values. The update includes statistical data from 4846 data sets, which had been collected by AGÖF institutes as part of their routine assessments between 2006 and 2012.

Still in actualization are the "AGÖF-Orientierungswerte für mittel- und schwerflüchtige organische Verbindungen und Schwermetalle im Hausstaub [AGÖF Guidance Values for semivolatile organic compounds and heavy metals in household dust]", the provisional German edition from the year 2004 can be found here.

 

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2. Exposure Assessment of Indoor Air Pollutants

For the assessment of volatile organic compounds (VOC)7, there are mainly two types of assessment guidelines that have gained relevance:

It should be noted here that there are also pragmatic or precaution-based assessment concepts such as the ALARA principle8, which, among others, is used in radiation safety or even for setting exposure limits for pesticides in drinking water based on the limit of quantification.

Assessment concepts are based on conventions, which are meant to reflect a scientific sociopolitical consensus.

Toxicologically derived assessments result in guideline values that are meant to answer health-related questions. In experiments, laboratory animals are exposed to different concentration levels of a compound in order to find the concentration level, at which observable effects are not triggered. An alternative approach to the development of guideline values is based on the observations from occupational studies, in which employees are exposed to relatively high concentrations. In order to evaluate the effects of low-emission indoor exposures in susceptible population groups (infants, sick people), so-called uncertainty factors are applied. A detailed discussion about how the guideline values of the so-called Ad-hoc-AG [Ad Hoc Working Group] were derived was published in 1996.9

With a toxicological approach, it remains open to what extent nonspecific health symptoms such as headaches, concentration problems, etc. can be recognized in animal experiments or investigations of laboratory workplaces. The health problems that are most frequently mentioned in the context of indoor air problems are nonspecific symptoms. Furthermore, indoor air usually contains compound mixtures that cannot be evaluated by toxicological reasoning alone. The definition of uncertainty factors, e.g. a factor of one hundred, cannot be justified anymore by toxicological reasoning and is based on conventions. The rather high cost of generating toxicological data is an important reason why there are only such a small number of guideline values available. This approach is not adequate for establishing verified assessments for the myriad of chemical compounds occurring in indoor air. However, it is an important tool for answering questions regarding threats to public health.

In the statistically derived assessment concept, reference values are developed. From a large number of representative investigations, a "usual, average" level of indoor air pollutants is established and defined as "normal." In many cases, the so-called 90th or 95th percentile is chosen as the concentration threshold, whereby any value exceeding the latter indicates an unusual exposure.10 11 12

Based on the available frequency distribution, AGÖF sets the 90th percentile of the measurement values for event-specific data as the upper reference value because this can be interpreted as the upper limit of the background level deemed as safe. 13

With regard to new chemical compounds or compound groups released into indoor air, no reference values will be available at first. In the event of an increased application of known compound groups due to a change in production (e.g. when solvents in paints were replaced), established reference values can also consistently be exceeded. Updating the reference values on a regular basis can counteract both occurrences.

Toxicologically and statistically derived concepts need to respond to a changing environment. New medical and toxicological knowledge helps keep the toxicological approach up to date. In case of the statistically derived values, changes in VOC concentrations in indoor air, which are associated with new product formulas and consumer habits, need to be tested.

A complete and user-specific assessment of indoor air problems needs to rely on both concepts. Only by considering statistical relationships as well as toxicological data, health risks can be weighted and the sources of indoor air problems identified. Odor problems, however, are not satisfactorily addressed by either one of the two concepts.

From testing experiences, it is known that, depending on the problem and situation, both assessment guidelines are important and need to be utilized by the professional indoor air consultant with different weighting strategies. Additional guidelines or assessment tools such as the TVOC concept, information on odors and the consultant’s personal experience complement both. It is the consultant’s responsibility to apply and weight the various assessment guidelines and to present his or her reasoning in a clear and comprehensible manner in a report.

The reasons why indoor air is tested for volatile organic compounds can often vary greatly, and sometimes the given problems can be intricately complex. Therefore, it is also an important task of the consultant to first define the scope of the assessment in consultation with the client and, based on this definition, to then coordinate the necessary measurement and assessment strategy.

The published AGÖF Guidance Values below support consultants in their work. On the one hand, they represent an up-to-date compendium of statistical reference values, and beyond that, they also show toxicologically relevant guideline values of other authors. Thus they contribute to promoting preventive healthcare.

 

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3. Data Collection and the Procedure How AGÖF Guidance Values Are Established

The currently available guidance values are based on an updated database from the years 2006 through 2012, which was generated as part of the research project "Conflict of Goals between Energy-efficient Buildings and Good Indoor Air Quality—Data Collection of Volatile Organic Compounds in Indoor Air of Residential and Office Buildings (solution-based strategies)]". Sample taking procedures and methods will only be summarized here. For more detailed information, see the project reports.14

For sample taking, the procedures set out in the VDI Guideline 4300 Sheet 1 and Sheet 6 were followed, most of which were adopted into DIN EN ISO 16000. In general, samples were taken after a space had not been ventilated for a minimum of eight hours because this type of sample taking leads to the most reproducible results. Active sampling techniques were used to collect air samples. In addition to thermal desorption techniques, methods based on solvent desorption (activated carbon or Anasorb) with the corresponding set of two samples for analyzing compounds with different polarity were also permitted for identification. In the analysis of the desorbent compounds, mostly gas chromatography with a mass-selective detector was used, but in some cases flame ionization and electron capture detectors were also used.

In addition, data on aldehyde and ketone concentrations were also collected, samples were taken with impingers (formaldehyde) and DNPH-based methods and analyses were performed (desorption with acetonitrile, analysis based on high-pressure liquid chromatography with UV detector), as well as flame retardant concentrations from the adsorption on PU foam and GC/MS analysis.

For the detection of low molecular alkanoic acids, Tenax is not the optimal adsorption medium. Due to their high polarity, false low readings must be assumed. It is, therefore, recommended to use special procedures such as derivatization/GC/MS or ion chromatography. However, we do not have sufficient measurement results yet for these procedures to be able to set any reference values.

To ensure quality of the various analytical methods, the participants of the research project conducted comparative laboratory measurements15 over the past years.

The list of AGÖF Guidance Values contains more than 300 individual compounds. It also includes compounds that go beyond the TVOC range (C6 to C16), but which were detected with the above-mentioned methods and are relevant to the assessment. In contrast, compounds and compound groups that have their own analytical method and require considerably lower limits of quantification such as additional phenols, chlorophenols, MVOCs, and PAHs were not included because they would require separate assessments.

For each compound, the statistical parameters of sampling size (n), 50th percentile (P 50), and 90th percentile (P 90) are listed with reference to the findings of the most current AGÖF research project. The parameters were derived by considering concentrations below the limit of quantification with the imputed one-half of the limit of quantification. Should the value calculated in this way fall below the limit of quantification, the corresponding percentile value of the limit of quantification is given with the sign "<".

In addition to the statistically derived percentiles, guidance values are only provided for those compounds for which a sufficiently large number of reliable measurement values were available. The guidance values were rounded (less than 10 with 2 significant figures and from 10 only whole numbers). When both the normal value and the attention value were below the limit of quantification, no guidance value was set.

For numerous compounds, the normal value and the attention value were below the limit of quantification. Detecting those compounds above the limit of quantification may already indicate an unusual level. Even compounds whose indoor air concentrations were in most cases below the limit of quantification may in selected cases reach high or assessment-relevant levels.

In most cases, the AGÖF guidance values correspond with the attention value and thus with the 90th percentile. The statistical analysis of the AGÖF data show that the 95th percentile is more heavily influenced by the random nature of a given measurement situation.

The guidance values for the parameters formaldehyde and TVOC were lowered in relation to their attention value because in event-specific measurements targeted at individual parameters (individual compound or a sum total value, respectively) concentrations are higher than when measuring individual compounds as part of screenings.

The statistical analysis of the TVOC value corresponds with the TVOC value that is determined for the retention range of n-hexane to n-hexadecane by taking the sum of compound-specific quantifiable bonds and additional bonds via toluene equivalents.

The list below should not be misunderstood as if all listed compounds would have to be tested for at all times. For each situation, the consultant will have to make a suitable selection, which may include selected individual compounds from this AGÖF list but also additional compounds not listed here. Even if the quantification of a large number of compounds is desirable in many cases, the number of compounds is not the only crucial factor. It is very important that procedures are used that can detect relevant and potential exposure levels beyond the known or compound-specific, quantifiable spectrum of compounds, respectively.

 

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4. Assessment of Odorous Compounds

As part of the research project16, the major reasons for indoor air investigations were identified (see Figure 1). Odors, health complaints, and suspicions of exposure are the most frequently named reasons for indoor air investigations. A noticeable or unpleasant odor is the reason for 26% of the indoor air investigations conducted by AGÖF institutes. In addition to other not further specified reasons, 15% of the measurements are carried out as final measurements prior to release or acceptance of a new or restored building.

Graph 1: Reasons for Indoor Air Investigations

This high percentage of odor-related investigations shows that the measurement and assessment of odors in indoor spaces has great priority.

In contrast to volatile organic compounds, however, there are no proven chemical-analytical testing methods for odors in indoor spaces. For the assessment of odors, concepts based on individual compounds are often not sufficient. It is, therefore, important to fall back on other procedures such as establishing odor values or sensory procedures.

Even though it is possible to chemically analyze some odors in indoor air with sufficient detection sensitivity, common odors are often caused by a complex mixture of several sometimes hundreds of individual compounds. Many of these compounds can already be perceived at concentrations of only a few nanograms per cubic meter of air, but analytically they are hardly detectable. When assessments are based on odor thresholds, it is important to consider that aromatic compounds interact with each other in mixtures. Interactions such as synergisms can have a substantial impact on the odor characteristics of compound mixtures.

The quality of existing odor threshold levels varies. Alongside up-to-date odor threshold levels established by well-documented procedures, there are also rather old odor threshold levels in the literature that were established by incompatible methods. For many indoor air pollutants, we lack the data of their odor threshold levels. In many cases, it is also unclear whether the provided data refers to the odor threshold or the odor detection threshold level. Therefore, the chemical analysis of odor-intensive compounds in indoor air is often not sufficient to fully capture and expertly assess odor problems. The AGÖF is convinced that it is very important to establish odor threshold values for additional compounds. The pollutant exposure profile of indoor air is subject to constant changes and for many volatile organic compounds that have only been recently detected in indoor air very little information is available. The List of AGÖF Guidance Values reflects the currently available exposure profile of indoor air conditions and thus is also very well suited as a priority list for identifying odor threshold levels.

In many cases, VOC measurements are not sufficient for clarifying odor problems in indoor spaces. Since odor nuisances often occur at very low concentration levels and can be caused by the interaction of different compounds, their detection through physical-chemical measurement procedures is extremely costly or simply impossible. Therefore, it may prove necessary to include olfactory-sensory procedures. Sensory methods that use the human nose as a measurement instrument can detect odors at sufficiently low levels. However, the same compound at the exact same level is perceived differently by different individuals. Furthermore, odor perceptions are interpreted in the brain and, based on past experience, are assessed differently by different individuals. For an objective measurement, therefore, it is important to ensure that the range of odor perception levels among the inspectors corresponds with the odor threshold distribution in the population. For more information, see the AGÖF Guideline "Odors in Indoor Spaces—Sensory Detection and Assessment".17

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5. Explanatory Notes for the List of AGÖF Guidance Values VOC

Column 1: Name of chemical compound

Column 2: CAS number

Column 3: Number n

It provides the number of data values the statistical analysis is based on.

Column 4: Normal value P 50

The normal value represents the "average" exposure situation in a given group. It is equivalent to the 50th percentile. Even indoor air concentrations within the normal-value range are usually the result of one or several emission sources, but in general, it is not considered sufficient evidence for an urgent call to action to minimize the exposure.

Column 5: Attention value P 90

The attention value refers to the 90th percentile value. It shows that common indoor air concentrations are exceeded and thus indicates that a respective emission source must exist.

Column 6: AGÖF guidance value

The guidance value is equivalent to the rounded attention value or the toxicologically derived values, provided that the latter are below the attention value.

It is the opinion of the AGÖF that whenever a guidance value is reached or exceeded, it should be checked whether additional preventive actions are called for to minimize VOC exposures even further. Its relevance to health and the necessity for remediation should also be reviewed. The extent and procedure of the testing must as far as possible be left to the expert’s judgment. In addition to the local conditions during testing, there should also be attention paid to the fact that:

  1. Procedural uncertainties exist for VOC measurements. Additional information on this topic can be learnt from the round robin tests and comparative measurements conducted by the AGÖF;
  2. Fluctuations in indoor VOC concentrations are to be expected as a function of climatic conditions and users’ habits;
  3. Depending on the emission source, a reduction of the exposure may follow an attenuation pattern.

Column 7: Notes

In this column, relevant notes are provided on additional assessment guidelines for individual compounds or compound groups such as toxicological reference values (GV II and GV I) of the so-called Ad-hoc-AG and additional reference values of other agencies or individual authors. Notes regarding compound characteristics, which may be relevant to the assessment, are also included.

The AGÖF is dedicated to up-to-date information; when in doubt, however, the up-to-dateness of a given guideline value should be checked at the link listed or the original paper, respectively.


Notes:

1"Ad-hoc-Arbeitsgruppe [Ad Hoc Working Group]" with experts from the "Innenraumlufthygiene-Kommission (IRK) [Indoor Air Hygiene Commission]" of the Federal Environment Agency and the Indoor Air Working Group of the Environmental Health Committee of the "Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Obersten Landesgesundheitsbehörden (AOLG) [Working Group of the State-Level Health Authorities]"
2http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/gesundheit/innenraumhygiene/richtwerte-irluft.htm
3Working Group of UBA and AGLMB (2007): Beurteilung von Innenraumluftkontaminationen mittels Referenz- und Richtwerten [Assessment of indoor air contaminations through reference and guideline values]. Bundesgesundheitsblatt 7, p. 990-1005
4AGÖF (2004): AGÖF-Orientierungswerte für Inhaltsstoffe von Raumluft und Hausstaub [AGÖF guidance values for constituents of indoor air and house dust]. 7th Expert Conference at Munich. p. 24-39
5Hofmann H, Plieninger P (2008): Bereitstellung einer Datenbank zum Vorkommen von flüchtigen organischen Verbindungen in der Innenraumluft [Provision of a Database for the Presence of Volatile Organic Compounds in Indoor Air]. WaBoLu-Hefte 05/08 Umweltbundesamt, Dessau-Roßlau Available at: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/publikationen/bereitstellung-einer-datenbank-vorkommen-von
6UFOPLAN Project FKZ 3709 62 211: Zielkonflikt energieeffiziente Bauweise und gute Raumluftqualität - Datenerhebung für flüchtige organische Verbindungen in der Raumluft von Wohn- und Bürogebäuden (Lösungswege) [Conflict of Goals between Energy-efficient Buildings and Good Indoor Air Quality Data Collection of Volatile Organic Compounds in Indoor Air of Residential and Office Buildings (solution-based strategies)], not yet published
7In this document, the AGÖF uses a somewhat extended definition of VOC; all chemical compounds that can be identified with the analytical procedures listed in chapter 3 are in first approximation defined as volatile, regardless whether according to WHO conventions they would more likely be regarded as "very volatile", "volatile", or "semivolatile".
8ALARA = As Low As Reasonable Achievable
9Ad hoc Working Group of UBA and AGLMB (1996): Richtwerte für die Innenraumluft: Basisschema [Indoor air guideline values: basic scheme]. Bundesgesundheitsblatt 39, p. 422-426
10Solberg HE (1987) International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC), Scientific Committee, Clinical Section, Expert Panel on Theory of Reference Values. Approved recommendation (1986) on the theory of reference values. Part 1. The concept of reference values. J Clin Chem Clin Biochem 25, p. 336-42
11Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften (Ed.) (2005): Innenraumarbeitsplätze - Vorgehensempfehlung für die Ermittlungen zum Arbeitsumfeld [Indoor workplaces - Precautionary recommendations for the investigations of work environments]
12Neumann HD, Buxtrup M, Weber M et al. (2012): Vorschlag zur Ableitung von Innenraumarbeitsplatz-Referenzwerten in Schulen [Recommendation for adjusting indoor workplace reference values for use in school environments]. Gefahrstoffe – Reinhaltung der Luft 72, p. 291-297 Available at http://www.dguv.de/medien/ifa/de/pub/grl/pdf/2012_106.pdf
13LABO (BUND-LÄNDER-ARBEITSGEMEINSCHAFT BODENSCHUTZ) (2003): Hintergrundwerte für anorganische und organische Stoffe in Böden [Background levels of inorganic and organic compounds in soils]. Beschlussfassung der 33. StäA4-Sitzung 29./30.1.2003. - 58 p. Quoted according to LfU Bayern (Bavarian Environment Agency). 2013. Was sind Hintergrundwerte genau [What exactly are background levels] – Available at http://www.lfu.bayern.de/boden/hintergrundwerte/index.htm
14Available at http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/publikationen/bereitstellung-einer-datenbank-vorkommen-von, final report of the second project is not yet available
15 http://www.agoef.de/agoef/oewerte/agoef_laborvergleichsmessung2006_07.html
16UFOPLAN Project FKZ 3709 62 211: Zielkonflikt energieeffiziente Bauweise und gute Raumluftqualität - Datenerhebung für flüchtige organische Verbindungen in der Raumluft von Wohn- und Bürogebäuden (Lösungswege) [Conflict of Goals between Energy-efficient Buildings and Good Indoor Air Quality Data Collection of Volatile Organic Compounds in Indoor Air of Residential and Office Buildings (solution-based strategies)], not yet published
17http://agoef.de/agoef/oewerte/agoef_geruchsleitfaden.html

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6. AGÖF List of Guidance Values VOC

Aliphatic Hydrocarbons
n-Hexane 110-54-3 3598 1.8 8.0 8.0  
2-Methylpentane 107-83-5 1734 1.0 7.0 7.0  
3-Methylpentane 96-14-0 1753 1.0 4.0 4.0  
n-Heptane 142-82-5 3624 2.0 9.0 9.0  
2-Methylhexane 591-76-4 1196 1.0 4.0 4.0  
3-Methylhexane 589-34-4 1832 1.0 6.3 6.3  
2,3-Dimethylpentane 565-59-3 750 <1 4.4 4.4  
n-Octane 111-65-9 3616 1.0 5.0 5.0  
2-Methylheptane 592-27-8 738 <1 1.2 1.2  
3-Methylheptane 589-81-1 706 <1 1.3 1.3  
2,2,4-Trimethylpentane (Isooctane) 540-84-1 2952 <1 1.0 1.0  
n-Nonane 111-84-2 3626 <1 5.0 5.0 Ad-hoc-AG: : Sum total of
   aliphatics C9-C14
   GV I = 0.2mg/m3;
   GV II = 2mg/m3
2,3-Dimethylheptane 3074-71-3 1123 <1 <1  
n-Decane 124-18-5 3627 1.0 11.0 11
n-Undecane 1120-21-4 3624 2.0 14.0 14
n-Dodecane 112-40-3 3625 1.0 9.0 9.0
2,2,4,6,6-Pentamethylheptane 13475-82-6 2943 <1 4.8 4.8
n-Tridecane 629-50-5 3624 1.0 5.0 5.0
n-Tetradecane 629-59-4 3626 1.0 4.0 4.0
n-Pentadecane 629-62-9 3622 1.0 3.0 3.0  
n-Hexadecane 544-76-3 3615 1.0 2.0 2.0  
2,2,4,4,6,8,8-Heptamethylnonane 4390-04-9 2826 <1 1.0 1.0  
n-Heptadecane 629-78-7 2292 <1 2.0 2.0  
n-Octadecane 593-45-3 2276 <1 1.0 1.0  
n-Nonadecane 629-92-5 2279 <1 <1    
n-Eicosane 112-95-8 2233 <1 <1    
n-Heneicosane 629-94-7 1186 <1 <1    
n-Docosane 629-97-0 1185 <1 <1    
Cycloalkanes
Cyclopentane 287-92-3 965 <1 4.0 4.0  
Cyclohexane 110-82-7 3606 1.0 9.0 9.0 BWG: pGV I = 400µg/m3;
   pGV II = 4000µg/m3
Methylcyclopentane 96-37-7 3633 <1 3.0 3.0  
Methylcyclohexane 108-87-2 3642 <1 4.0 4.0  
Dimethylcyclohexane 589-90-2 791 <1 <1    
trans-Decahydronaphthalene 493-02-7 986 <1 1.0 1.0  
Decalin 91-17-8 640 <2 2.7 2.7  
Alkenes
1-Heptene 592-76-7 1109 <1 2.0 2.0  
1-Octene 111-66-0 3438 <1.5 <2    
1-Nonene 124-11-8 1849 <2 <2    
1-Decene 872-05-9 3440 <1.5 <2    
1-Undecene 821-95-4 1828 <1.5 <2    
1-Dodecene 112-41-4 1207 <2 <2    
1-Tridecene 2437-56-1 1141 <2 <2    
1-Propene, 2-methyl-, trimer (Triisobutylene) 7756-94-7 2970 <1 <1.5    
Cyclohexene 110-83-8 964 <1 <1.5    
4-Vinylcyclohexene 100-40-3 2961 <1 <1    
4-Phenylcyclohexene 4994-16-5 3584 <1 <1    
Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Benzene 71-43-2 3647 1.0 3.0 3.0 Carcinogen (Category 1A)
39. BImSchV: limit values
   for ambient air: 5µg/m3
WHO: „no safe level”
Toluene 108-88-3 3664 7.0 30.0 30 Ad-hoc-AG:
   GV I = 0.3mg/m3;
   GV II = 3mg/m3
BWG: Sum total of C1-C4
   alkylbenzenes
   pGV I = 300µg/m3;
   pGV II = 3000µg/m3
BMLFUW: WIR = 75µg/m3
WHO:
   GV = 260µg/m3 (toxicity);
   GV = 1.000 µg/m3 (odor)
Ethylbenzene 100-41-4 3652 1.0 10.0 10 Ad-hoc-AG:
   GV I = 0,2mg/m3;
   GV II = 2mg/m3

BWG: Sum total of C1-C4
   alkylbenzenes
   pGV I = 300µg/m3;
   pGV II = 3000µg/m3
m,p-Xylene 1330-20-7 3650 3.0 29.0 29 BWG: Sum total of C1-C4
   alkylbenzenes
   pGV I = 300µg/m3;
   pGV II = 3000µg/m3
o-Xylene 95-47-6 3643 1.0 9.0 9.0
n-Propylbenzene 103-65-1 3639 <1 2.1 2.1 Ad-hoc-AG: Sum total of
   C9-C15 alkylbenzenes:
   GV I = 0.1mg/m3;
   GV II = 1mg/m3
BWG: Sum total of C1-C4
   alkylbenzenes
   pGV I = 300µg/m3;
   pGV II = 3000µg/m3
1-Methylethylbenzene (Cumene) 98-82-8 3635 <1 1.0 1.0
2-Methylethylbenzene (2-Ethyltoluene) 611-14-3 3608 <1 3.0 3.0
3-Methylethylbenzene (3-Ethyltoluene) 620-14-4 1826 1.0 6.7 6.7
4-Methylethylbenzene (4-Ethyltoluene) 622-96-8 1815 <1 3.0 3.0
3/4-Ethyltoluene 620-14-4/
622-96-8
1195 1.0 5.0 5.0
1,2,3-Trimethylbenzene (Hemimellitene) 526-73-8 3607 <1 2.6 2.6
1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene (Pseudocumene) 95-63-6 3639 1.0 10.9 11
1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene (Mesitylene) 108-67-8 3640 <1 3.0 3.0
n-Butylbenzene 104-51-8 2462 <1 <1  
1,2,4,5-Tetramethylbenzene (Durene) 95-93-2 2842 <1 <1  
1,2,3,5-Tetramethylbenzene (Isodurene) 527-53-7 1704 <1 <1  
o-Cymene 527-84-4 1125 <1 <1  
m-Cymene 535-77-3 1125 <1 1.0 1.0
p-Cymene 99-87-6 3618 <1 2.0 2.0
1,3-Dimethyl-5-ethylbenzene 934-74-7 940 <1 1.0 1.0
1,3-Diisopropylbenzene 99-62-7 1380 <1 <1   Ad-hoc-AG: Sum total of
   C9-C15 alkylbenzenes:
   GV I = 0.1mg/m3;
   GV II = 1mg/m3
1,4-Diisopropylbenzene 100-18-5 1380 <1 <1  
1,3-/1,4-Diisopropylbenzene 99-62-7 /
100-18-5
1074 <1 <1  
n-Octylbenzene (Phenyloctane) 2189-60-8 615 <1 <1  
Styrene 100-42-5 3652 1.0 12.0 12 Ad-hoc-AG:
   GV I =0.03mg/m3;
   GV II = 0.3mg/m3
BMLFUW: WIR = 40µg/m3
WHO:
   GV = 260µg/m3 (toxicity);
   GV = 30µg/m3 (odors)
Methylstyrene 98-83-9 1453 <1 <3    
2-Vinyltoluene (o-Vinyltoluene) 611-15-4 964 <1 <1    
3-Vinyltoluene 100-80-1 964 <1 <1    
4-Vinyltoluene 622-97-9 964 <1 <1    
Vinyltoluene 25013-15-4 615 <1 <1    
Phenylacetylene 536-74-3 1579 <1 <1    
Phenol 108-95-2 2598 <1 3.0 3.0 Ad-hoc-AG:
   GV I =0,02mg/m3;
   GV II = 0,2mg/m3
2-Cresol (o-Cresol) 95-48-7 465 <1 <1   Ad-hoc-AG: Sum total of cresols:
   GV I = 0.005mg/m3;
   GV II = 0.05mg/m3
m-,p-Cresol 108-39-4/
106-44-5
464 <1 <1  
2,6-Di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (Butylated hydroxytoluene BHT) 128-37-0 2641 <1 <1    
Naphthalene 91-20-3 3619 <1 1.2 1.2
[Anm. 1]
Carcinogen (K2)
Ad-hoc-AG:
   GV I = 0.01mg/m3;
   GV II = 0.03mg/m3
WHO: maximum annual
   average concentration
   0.01mg/m3
BUI: Sum total of PAHs
   including toxicity factors
1-Methylnaphthalene 90-12-0 1124 <0.1 <1   Ad-hoc-AG: Sum total of
   bicyclic and tricyclic
   hydrocarbons:
   (p)GV I = 0.01mg/m3;
   (p)GV II = 0.03mg/m3
2-Methylnaphthalene 91-57-6 1124 <0.1 <1  
Diisopropylnaphthalene 38640-62-9 1166 1.0 3.0 3.0  
1,2,3,4-Tetrahydronaphthalene 119-64-2 1231 <0.1 <1    
Indene 95-13-6 619 <1 <1    
Indan 496-11-7 2204 <1 1.0 1.0  
Halocarbons
Trichloromethane 67-66-3 1155 <1 <1    
Carbon tetrachloride 56-23-5 1863 <1 <1.5    
1,2-Ethylene dichloride 107-06-2 2061 <1 <1    
Epichlorohydrin 106-89-8 1187 <1 <1    
1,1,1-Trichloroethane (Methylchloroform) 71-55-6 3614 <1 <1    
Trichloroethylene 79-01-6 2501 <1 <1   Carcinogen (Category 1B)
WHO: „no safe level”
Tetrachloroethylene (Perchloroethylene) 127-18-4 3615 <1 <1 2. BImSchV: 0.1mg/m3
WHO: GV = 250µg/m3
BMLFUW: WIR = 250µg/m3
cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene 156-59-2 1102 <1 <1    
Chlorobenzene 108-90-7 1099 <1 <1    
1,2-Dichlorobenzene 95-50-1 2718 <1 <1    
1,3-Dichlorobenzene 541-73-1 2713 <1 <1    
1,4-Dichlorobenzene 106-46-7 3548 <1 <1    
1-Chloronaphthalene 90-13-1 1972 <1 <1    
2-Chloronaphthalene 91-58-7 1281 <1 <1    
1,4-Dichloronaphthalene 1825-31-6 1134 <1 <1    
1,5-Dichloronaphthalene 1825-30-5 961 <1 <1    
1,3-Dichloro-2-propanol 96-23-1 1826 <1 <1    
Alcohols
1-Propanol 71-23-8 1086 <1 18.0 18  
2-Propanol (Isopropyl alcohol) 67-63-0 1835 20.0 91.4 91  
1-Butanol 71-36-3 3556 8.0 35.0 35  
2-Methyl-1-propanol (Isobutyl alcohol) 78-83-1 3393 1.0 10.0 10  
t-Butyl alcohol 75-65-0 627 <1 <1    
1-Pentanol (Amyl alcohol) 71-41-0 2459 <1 5.4 5.4  
2-Pentanol 6032-29-7 203 0.4 <1    
3-Methyl-1-butanol (Isoamyl alcohol) 123-51-3 849 <1.5 <1.5    
1-Hexanol 111-27-3 2455 <1 1.0 1.0  
1-Heptanol 111-70-6 1759 <1 <1    
1-Octanol 111-87-5 1936 <1 <1    
2-Ethylhexanol (2-Ethyl-1-hexyl alcohol) 104-76-7 3592 3.0 13.0 13 Ad-hoc-AG:
   GV I = 0.1mg/m3;
   pGV II = 1mg/m3
1-Nonanol 143-08-8 1759 <1 <1    
1-Decanol 112-30-1 2397 <1 <1.5    
Cyclohexanol 108-93-0 617 <1 <1    
1-Octen-3-ol 3391-86-4 792 <0.4 0.5 0.5  
Benzyl alcohol 100-51-6 3311 <1 4.6 4.6 Ad-hoc-AG:
   GV I = 0.4mg/m3;
   GV II = 4mg/m3
Diacetone alcohol 123-42-2 632 <1 <1    
Terpenes
alpha-Pinene 80-56-8 3591 4.0 68.0 68 Ad-hoc-AG: Sum total of bicyclic terpenes
   GV I = 0.2mg/m3;
   GV II = 2mg/m3
beta-Pinene 127-91-3 3593 1.0 8.7 8.7
3-Carene ((+-)-delta3-Carene) 13466-78-9 3574 1.0 25.9 26
Limonene 138-86-3 3648 4.0 23.0 23 Ad-hoc-AG: Sum total of monocyclic terpenes
   GV I = 1mg/m3;
   GV II = 10mg/m3
Linalool (beta-Linalool) 78-70-6 2709 <1 <1    
Camphor 76-22-2 2854 <1 <1.5   Ad-hoc-AG: Sum total of bicyclic terpenes
   GV I = 0.2mg/m3;
   GV II = 2mg/m3
Camphene 79-92-5 2320 <1 2.1 2.1
Eucalyptol 470-82-6 2859 <1 <2   Ad-hoc-AG: Sum total of monocyclic terpenes
   GV I = 1mg/m3;
   GV II = 10mg/m3
Racementhol (Menthol) 89-78-1 1756 <1 <1    
alpha-Terpinene 99-86-5 3312 <1 <1.5   Ad-hoc-AG: Sum total of monocyclic terpenes
   GV I = 1mg/m3;
   GV II = 10mg/m3
gamma-Terpinene 99-85-4 712 <1,5 <1,5    
Longicyclene 1137-12-8 651 <1 <1    
Borneol 507-70-0 2134 <1 <1   Ad-hoc-AG: Sum total of bicyclic terpenes
   GV I = 0.2mg/m3;
   GV II = 2mg/m3
Isolongifolene 1135-66-6 2218 <1 <1,5    
Longifolene 475-20-7 3437 <1 2,0 2.0  
Levoverbenone 1196-01-6 2122 <1 <1   Ad-hoc-AG: Sum total of bicyclic terpenes
   GV I = 0.2mg/m3;
   GV II = 2mg/m3
Caryophyllene (beta-Caryophyllene) 87-44-5 1750 <1 <1.5    
Citronellol 106-22-9 1607 <1 <2    
Myrcene 123-35-3 1383 <1 2.0 2.0  
alpha-Phellandrene 99-83-2 416 <1 <1    
(6Z)-beta-Farnesene 28973-97-9 416 <1 <1    
alpha-Longipinene 5989-08-2 416 <1 <1    
alpha-Terpineol 98-55-5 988 <1 1.0 1.0  
Aldehydes
Formaldehyde 50-00-0 2035 35.0 81.0 30*
[NB 2,3]
Carcinogen (Category 2)
   [NB 4]
BGA: 0.1 ppm (≡ 120µg/m3)
Sagunski:
   pGV I = 0.03mg/m3;
   pGV II = 0.1mg/m3[NB 3]
WHO: Maximum guideline
   value of 0.1 mg/m3
   as a 30-minute average
*Under user conditions
Acetaldehyde 75-07-0 911 20.0 54.0 54 Ad-hoc-AG:
   GV I = 0.1mg/m3;
   GV II = 1mg/m3
B.A.U.CH. (b):
   Sum total of C3-C6
   n-aldehydes GV = 60ppb
Propionaldehyde (Propanal) 123-38-6 891 4.0 14.0 14 BWG: pGV I = 20µg/m3
BWG: Sum total of
   C3-C6 alkanals:
   pGV I = 100µg/m3;
   pGV II = 1000µg/m3
B.A.U.CH. (b):
   Sum total of C2-C10
   n-aldehydes GV = 60ppb
Butyraldehyde (Butanal) 123-72-8 2948 2.0 10.0 10 Ad-hoc-AG: Sum total of
   saturated acyclic aliphatic
   alkanals C4-C11:
   GV I = 0.1mg/m3;
   GV II = 2mg/m3
BWG: pGV I = 10µg/m3
BWG: Sum total of
   C3-C6 alkanals:
   pGV I =100µg/m3;
   pGV II = 1000µg/m3
B.A.U.CH. (b): GV = 44µg/m3
B.A.U.CH. (b):
   Sum total of C2-C10
   n-aldehydes GV = 60ppb
Pentanal (Valeraldehyde) 110-62-3 3698 4.0 20.3 20 Ad-hoc-AG: Sum total of
   saturated acyclic aliphatic
   alkanals C4-C11:
   GV I = 0.1mg/m3;
   GV II = 2mg/m3
BWG: Sum total of
   C3-C6 alkanals:
   pGV I =100µg/m3;
   pGV II = 1000µg/m3
B.A.U.CH. (b): GV = 53µg/m3
B.A.U.CH. (b):
   Sum total of C2-C10
   n-aldehydes GV = 60ppb
3-Methyl-1-butanal (Isovaleraldehyde) 590-86-3 360 <1 <3 Ad-hoc-AG: Sum total of
   saturated acyclic aliphatic
   alkanals C4-C11:
   GV I = 0.1mg/m3;
   GV II = 2mg/m3
n-Hexanal (Capronaldehyde) 66-25-1 3725 11.0 55.0 55 Ad-hoc-AG: Sum total of
   saturated acyclic aliphatic
   alkanals C4-C11:
   GV I = 0.1mg/m3;
   GV II = 2mg/m3
BWG: pGV I = 20µg/m3
BWG: Sum total of
   C3-C6 alkanals:
   pGV I =100µg/m3;
   pGV II = 1000µg/m3
B.A.U.CH. (b): GV = 61µg/m3
B.A.U.CH. (b):
   Sum total of C2-C10
   n-aldehydes GV = 60ppb
2-Ethylhexaldehyde 123-05-7 2313 <1 <2   Ad-hoc-AG: Sum total of
   saturated acyclic aliphatic
   alkanals C4-C11:
   GV I = 0.1mg/m3;
   GV II = 2mg/m3
n-Heptanal (Heptanal) 111-71-7 3632 2.0 6.7 6.7 Ad-hoc-AG: Sum total of
   saturated acyclic aliphatic
   alkanals C4-C11:
   GV I = 0.1mg/m3;
   GV II = 2mg/m3
B.A.U.CH. (b): GV = 70µg/m3
B.A.U.CH. (b):
   Sum total of C2-C10
   n-aldehydes GV = 60ppb
n-Octanal (Caprylic aldehyde) 124-13-0 3630 2.0 8.0 8.0 Ad-hoc-AG: Sum total of
   saturated acyclic aliphatic
   alkanals C4-C11:
   GV I = 0.1mg/m3;
   GV II = 2mg/m3
B.A.U.CH. (b): GV = 79µg/m3
B.A.U.CH. (b):
   Sum total of C2-C10
   n-aldehydes GV = 60ppb
n-Nonanal (Pelargonic aldehyde) 124-19-6 3637 6.0 19.0 19 Ad-hoc-AG: Sum total of
   saturated acyclic aliphatic
   alkanals C4-C11:
   GV I = 0.1mg/m3;
   GV II = 2mg/m3
B.A.U.CH. (b): GV = 87µg/m3
B.A.U.CH. (b):
   Sum total of C2-C10
   n-aldehydes GV = 60ppb
n-Decanal (Caprinic aldehyde) 112-31-2 3622 2.0 7.0 7.0 Ad-hoc-AG: Sum total of
   saturated acyclic aliphatic
   alkanals C4-C11:
   GV I = 0.1mg/m3;
   GV II = 2mg/m3
B.A.U.CH. (b): GV = 96µg/m3
B.A.U.CH. (b):
   Sum total of C2-C10
   n-aldehydes GV = 60ppb
Undecanal 112-44-7 2013 <1 1.0 1.0 Ad-hoc-AG: Sum total of
   saturated acyclic aliphatic
   alkanals C4-C11:
   GV I = 0.1mg/m3;
   GV II = 2mg/m3
n-Dodecanal (Lauryl aldehyde) 112-54-9 1139 <1 1.0 1.0  
Benzaldehyde 100-52-7 3684 4.0 15.0 15 Ad-hoc-AG:
   GV I = 0.02mg/m3;
   GV II = 0.2mg/m3
4-Methylbenzaldehyde 104-87-0 505 <1 <1.3    
Cuminaldehyde 122-03-2 978 <1 <1    
Methacrolein (Methacrylic aldehyde) 78-85-3 601 <1 <3    
2-Butenal (Crotonic aldehyde) 4170-30-3 1313 <1 <2    
trans-2-Pentenal 1576-87-0 693 <1 <1    
2-Hexenal 505-57-7 693 <1 <1    
2-Heptenal 2463-63-0 702 <1 <1    
2-Octenal 2363-89-5 693 <1 <1    
2-Nonenal 2463-53-8 694 <1 1.0 1.0  
2-Decenal 3913-71-1 693 <1 <1    
2-Undecenal 2463-77-6 693 <1 <1    
Acrolein 107-02-8 774 <5 <5    
Glutaral 111-30-8 761 <1 <3    
2-Furaldehyde (Furfural) 98-01-1 1611 1.0 4.0 4.0 Ad-hoc-AG:
   GV I = 0.01mg/m3;
   GV II = 0.1mg/m3
5-Methyl-2-furfural 620-02-0 288 <1 <4    
Ketones
Acetone 67-64-1 606 42.0 161.0 161  
2-Butanone (Methyl ethyl ketone MEK) 78-93-3 3740 4.1 33.4 33  
Methyl propyl ketone 107-87-9 250 <2 <3    
2-Hexanone (Methyl butyl ketone MBK) 591-78-6 1892 <1 1.0 1.0  
3-Methyl-2-butanone (Methyl isopropyl ketone MIPK) 563-80-4 865 <1 <3    
4-Methyl-2-pentanon (Methylisobutylketon MIBK) 108-10-1 3642 <1 4.0 4.0 Ad-hoc-AG:
   GV I = 0.1mg/m3;
   GV II = 1mg/m3
Diisobutyl ketone 108-83-8 1681 <1 <2    
2-Heptanone (Methyl pentyl ketone) 110-43-0 1957 <1 1.9 1.9  
3-Heptanone (Ethyl-n-butyl ketone) 106-35-4 2411 <1 2.0 2.0  
3-Octanone (Ethyl pentyl ketone) 106-68-3 851 <0.5 <0.5    
2,4-Dimethyl-3-pentanone (Diisopropyl ketone) 565-80-0 643 <1.5 <1.5    
Cyclopentanone 120-92-3 621 <1 <1    
Cyclohexanone 108-94-1 3697 1.0 5.0 5.0  
2-Methylcyclopentanone 1120-72-5 618 <1 <1    
2-Methylcyclohexanone 583-60-8 617 <1 <1    
3,3,5-Trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one (Isophorone) 78-59-1 239 <1 <2    
Acetophenone (Methyl phenyl ketone) 98-86-2 3409 1.3 4.0 4.0  
Benzophenone 119-61-9 1032 <1 <1    
Hydroxyaceton (Acetone alcohol or acetol) 116-09-6 617 <1 <1    
Esters of Monohydric and Dihydric Alcohols
Formic acid, butyl ester (n-Butyl formate) 592-84-7 2847 <1 1.0 1.0  
Methyl acetate 79-20-9 2029 1.0 6.0 6.0  
Ethyl acetate 141-78-6 3636 3.0 22.9 23  
Vinyl acetate 108-05-4 1008 <1 <1    
n-Propyl acetate 109-60-4 2466 <1 <2    
Isopropyl acetate 108-21-4 2474 <1 <1.5    
n-Butyl acetate 123-86-4 3596 2,0 26.6 27  
Isobutyl acetate 110-19-0 3613 <1 <2    
n-Amyl acetate 628-63-7 1616 <1 <2    
Isoamyl acetate 123-92-2 639 <2 <2    
1-Butanol, 3-methoxy-, 1-acetate (3-Methoxybutyl acetate or Butoxyl) 4435-53-4 1775 <1 <1    
n-Hexyl acetate 142-92-7 976 <1 <1    
2-Ethylhexyl acetate 103-09-3 619 <1 <1    
Isopropyl myristate 110-27-0 887 <1 <1    
4-tert-Butylcyclohexyl acetate 32210-23-4 966 <1 <1  
Benzoic acid, methyl ester (Methyl benzoate) 93-58-3 1224 <1 <1    
Acrylic acid, methyl ester (Methyl acrylate) 96-33-3 1807 <1 <1    
Acrylic acid, ethyl ester (Ethyl acrylate) 140-88-5 1752 <1 <1    
Acrylic acid, butyl ester (n-Butyl acrylate) 141-32-2 1807 <1 <1    
2-Ethylhexyl acrylate 103-11-7 806 <1 <1    
1,6-Hexanediol diacrylate 13048-33-4 1587 <1 <1    
Methacrylic acid, methyl ester (Methyl methacrylate) 80-62-6 3619 <1 <1.5   BWG: pGV I = 100µg/m3;
   pGV II = 1000µg/m3
N-Butyl methacrylate 97-88-1 621 <1 <1    
Bornyl acetate 76-49-3 1712 <1 <1.5    
Butyl glycolate 7397-62-8 615 <1 <1    
Ethylenglykole mono methyl ether acetate (EGMEA, 2-Methoxyethanol acetate) 110-49-6 3474 <1 <1.5   Ad-hoc-AG:
„Default”-GV I = 0.005ml/m3;
„Default”-GV II = 0.05ml/m3
Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate (EGEEA, 2-Ethoxyethyl acetate) 111-15-9 3519 <1 <2   Ad-hoc-AG:
   GV I = 0.2mg/m3;
   GV II = 2mg/m3
Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether acetate (EGBEA, 2-Butoxyethyl acetate) 112-07-2 3565 <1 <1   Ad-hoc-AG:
   pGV I = 0.2mg/m3;
   pGV II = 2mg/m3
Diethylene glycol diacetate 628-68-2 975 <1 <1   Ad-hoc-AG:
„Default”-GV I = 0.005ml/m3;
„Default”-GV II = 0.05ml/m3
Propylene glycol diacetate 623-84-7 618 <1 <1  
Propylene glycol mono methyl ether acetate (PGMEA, 1-Methoxy-2-propanol acetate) 108-65-6 3472 1.0 7.8 7.8
Ethoxypropyl acetate 98516-30-4 1721 <1 <1.5  
Propanol, (2-methoxymethylethoxy)-, acetate (Propanol, 1(or 2)-(2-methoxymethylethoxy)-, acetate) 88917-22-0 2267 <1 <1.5   Ad-hoc-AG:
„Default”-GV I = 0.005ml/m3;
„Default”-GV II = 0.05ml/m3
Diethyleneglycol monobutyl ether acetate (Butyl carbitol acetate) 124-17-4 3509 <1 <1.5  
Ethyl 3-ethoxypropionate 763-69-9 644 <2 <2    
2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate (TXIB) 6846-50-0 2921 <1 3.0 3.0 BWG: pGV II = 1000µg/m3
Texanol 25265-77-4 3535 <1 2.0 2.0  
Dimethyl succinatet 106-65-0 2582 <1 <3    
Dimethyl glutarate 1119-40-0 2582 <1 <2.5    
Dimethyl adipate (Hexanedioic acid, dimethyl ester) 627-93-0 2584 <1 <2    
Diisobutyl succinate 925-06-4 855 <2 <2    
Diisobutyl glutarate 71195-64-7 898 <2 <2    
Diisobutyl adipate 141-04-8 1606 <1 <2    
Dibutyl maleate 105-76-0 2840 <1 <2    
Diisobutyl maleate 14234-82-3 628 <1 <1    
Dibutyl fumarate 105-75-9 615 <1 <1    
Dimethyl phthalate 131-11-3 3422 <1 <2    
Diethyl Phthalate 84-66-2 2198 <1 1.8 1.8  
Dibutyl phthalate 84-74-2 2180 <2 <7    
Diisobutyl phthalate 84-69-5 2186 <2 <7   B.A.U.CH. (c): 2.8µg/m3
1,3-Dioxolan-2-one 96-49-1 619 <1 <1    
Diethyl carbonate 105-58-8 963 <1 <1  
Polyhydric Alcohols and Their Ethers (Glycols and Ethers)
Ethylene glycol 107-21-1 2745 <1 <6    
Propylene glycol (1,2-Propylene glycol) 57-55-6 3562 2,0 14.4 14  
1,4-Butanediol 110-63-4 618 <1 <1    
Hexylene glycol 107-41-5 1244 <5 <5    
Diethylene glycol 111-46-6 1759 <5 <10    
Dipropylene glycol 25265-71-8 729 <1 <5    
Tripropylene glycol 24800-44-0 1224 <1 <3    
Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (2-Methoxyethanol, Methyl cellosolve) 109-86-4 3486 <3 <5   B.A.U.CH. (a): GV = 30µg/m3
B.A.U.CH. (a): Summary
   assessment of different
   glycol derivatives
Ad-hoc-AG:
   GV I = 0.02mg/m3;
   GV II = 0.2mg/m3
Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (2-Ethoxyethanol) 110-80-5 3531 <1 <2,5   B.A.U.CH. (a): RW = 90µg/m3
B.A.U.CH. (a): Summary
   assessment of different
   glycol derivatives
Ad-hoc-AG:
   GV I = 0.1mg/m3;
   GV II = 1mg/m3
Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (n-Butoxyethanol) 111-76-2 3550 1.9 13.4 13 B.A.U.CH. (a): RW =
   120µg/m3
B.A.U.CH. (a): Summary
   assessment of different
   glycol derivatives
Ad-hoc-AG:
   GV I = 0.1mg/m3;
   v II = 1mg/m3
Ethylene glycol monophenyl ether (2-Phenoxyethanol) 122-99-6 3547 1.0 5.0 5.0 B.A.U.CH. (d):
   RW = 300µg/m3 (Toxizität),
   RW = 100µg/m3 (Geruch)
Ad-hoc-AG:
„Default”-GV I = 0.005ml/m3;
„Default”-GV II = 0.05ml/m3
Diethylene glycol monomethyl ether (2-(2-Methoxyethoxy)ethanol, Methoxydiglycol) 111-77-3 2900 <5 <5   Ad-hoc-AG:
   (p)GV I = 2mg/m3 ;
   (p)GV II = 6mg/m3
Diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (2-(2-Ethoxyethoxy)ethanol, Ethoxydiglycol) 111-90-0 3361 <1 <7   Ad-hoc-AG:
   (p)GV I = 0.7mg/m3 ;
   (p)GV II = 2mg/m3
Diethylene glycol mono-n-butyl ether (2-(2-Butoxyethoxy)ethanol, Butyl diglycol) 112-34-5 3540 <2 8.0 8.0 Ad-hoc-AG:
   (p)GV I = 0.4mg/m3 ;
   (p)GV II = 1mg/m3
1-Methoxy-2-hydroxypropane (PGME, 1-Methoxy-2-propanol) 107-98-2 3548 2.0 14.0 14 Ad-hoc-AG:
   (p)GV I = 1mg/m3 ;
   (pv)GV II = 10mg/m3
3-Methoxybutanol 2517-43-3 826 <1.5 1.5 1.5  
1-Ethoxy-2-propanol 1569-02-4 1715 <2 <2 Ad-hoc-AG:
   (p)GV I = 0.3mg/m3 ;
   (p)GV II = 3mg/m3
1-Propoxy-2-propanol 1569-01-3 749 <1 <1   Ad-hoc-AG:
„Default”-GV I = 0.005ml/m3;
„Default”-GV II = 0.05ml/m3
1-Butoxy-2-propanol (1,2-Propylene glycol monobutyl ether) 5131-66-8 2904 <1 3.0 3.0
1-Phenoxypropan-2-ol (Propylene phenoxetol) 770-35-4 2009 <1 <2  
Dipropylene glycol monomethyl ether 34590-94-8 2871 <1 7.0 7.0 Ad-hoc-AG:
   (p)GV I = 3mg/m3 ;
   (p)GV II = 7mg/m3
Dipropylene glycol monobutyl ether (2-Propanol, 1-(2-butoxy-1-methylethoxy)-) 29911-28-2 3526 <1 3.0 3.0 Ad-hoc-AG:
„Default”-GV I = 0.005ml/m3;
„Default”-GV II = 0.05ml/m3
Tripropylene glycol n-butyl ether (Propanol, (2-(2-butoxymethylethoxy) methylethoxy)-) 55934-93-5 2900 <1 <4  
Ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (DME) (1,2-Dimethoxyethane) 110-71-4 1679 <1 <1  
Ethylene glycol diethyl ether 629-14-1 1636 <1 <1  
Diethylene glycol dimethyl ether 111-96-6 1693 <1 <1   Ad-hoc-AG:
   (p)GV I = 0.03mg/m3 ;
   (p)GV II = 0.33mg/m3
Dipropylene glycol monopropyl ether (2-Propanol, 1-(1-methyl-2-propoxyethoxy) or 1-(1-Methyl-2-propoxyethoxy)propan-2-ol) 29911-27-1 1295 <2 <2   Ad-hoc-AG:
„Default”-GV I = 0.005ml/m3;
„Default”-GV II = 0.05ml/m3
Dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether 111109-77-4 1098 <1.5 <1.5  
Triethylene glycol monobutyl ether 143-22-6 1118 <1 <1  
Diethylene glycol diethyl ether 112-36-7 1076 <1 <1  
Diethylene glycol dibutyl ether 112-73-2 1614 <1 <2.5    
Triethylene glycol dimethyl ether (Triglyme) 112-49-2 1255 <2 <2   Ad-hoc-AG:
„Default”-GV I = 0.005ml/m3;
„Default”-GV II = 0.05ml/m3
Diethylene glycol hexyl ether 112-59-4 1591 <1 <1  
Ethylene glycol monohexyl ether (2-Hexoxyethanol) 112-25-4 1592 <1 <1   Ad-hoc-AG:
   (p)GV I = 0.1mg/m3 ;
   (p)GV II = 1mg/m3
Dipropylene glycol mono-tert-butyl ether 132739-31-2 615 <1 <1   Ad-hoc-AG:
„Default”-GV I = 0.005ml/m3;
„Default”-GV II = 0.05ml/m3
Tripropyleneglycol monomethyl ether 20324-33-8 615 <1 <1  
1,2-Dimethoxypropane 7778-85-0 619 <1 <1  
2,4,7,9-Tetramethyl-5-decyne-4,7-diol 126-86-3 1105 <1 <1    
Ethylene glycol monopropyl ether (2-Propoxyethanol) 2807-30-9 618 <1 <1   Ad-hoc-AG:
„Default”-GV I = 0.005ml/m3;
„Default”-GV II = 0.05ml/m3
Isopropoxyethanol 109-59-1 615 <1 <1  
Siloxanes
Hexamethyldisiloxane 107-46-0 974 <1 <1    
Hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane 541-05-9 2682 2.5 16.0 16 Ad-hoc-AG: Total sum of cyclic
   dimethylsiloxanes D3 – D6
   0.4mg/m3 ;
   GV II = 4mg/m3
Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane 556-67-2 3610 1.0 7.0 7.0
Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane 541-02-6 3168 3.0 22.0 22
Dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane 540-97-6 816 <3 10.8 11
Alkanoic Acids
Acetic acid 64-19-7 1863 24.0 87.8 88  
Propionic acid 79-09-4 1709 1.0 7.0 7.0  
2-Methylpropanoic acid 79-31-2 1706 <1 1.0 1.0  
Butyric acid 107-92-6 1890 <1 2.0 2.0  
Pentanoic acid 109-52-4 1702 <1 2.0 2.0  
2,2-Dimethylpropanoic acid 75-98-9 1692 <1 <1    
Caproic acid 142-62-1 1890 <1 5.0 5.0  
Heptanoic acid 111-14-8 1703 <1 1.0 1.0  
2-Ethylhexanoic acid 149-57-5 1717 <1 1.0 1.0  
Octanoic acid 124-07-2 1885 <1 2.0 2.0  
Others
Dibutyl ether 142-96-1 1603 <1 1.8 1.8  
Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) 1634-04-4 1797 <2 <2    
Dicaprylyl ether 629-82-3 1620 <1 <1.5    
2-Methylfuran 534-22-5 1682 <1 <1.3    
3-Methylfuran 930-27-8 872 <1 <1.3    
2-Pentylfuran 3777-69-3 1472 <0,8 2.0 2.0  
Tetrahydrofuran (THF) 109-99-9 3353 <1 1.0 1.0  
gamma-Butyrolactone 96-48-0 621 <1 1.0 1.0  
1,4-Dioxane 123-91-1 2380 <1 <3    
2-Butanone oxime 96-29-7 2507 <1 3.6 3.6  
Acrylonitrile 107-13-1 1019 <1 1.0 1.0  
Caprolactam 105-60-2 2560 <1 2.0 2.0  
Methylpyrrolidone 872-50-4 2870 <1 2.0 2.0  
Hexamethylentetramine 100-97-0 615 <1 <1    
Triethylamine 121-44-8 462 <1 <1    
Methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI) 26172-55-4 652 <1 <1    
Methylisothiazolinone (MIT) 2682-20-4 504 <1 <1    
Benzothiazole 95-16-9 2328 <1 1.0 1.0  
Triethyl phosphate 78-40-0 646 <1 <1    
Tributyl phosphate 126-73-8 715 <1 <1   Ad-hoc-AG: Summe
   GV I = 0.005mg/m3;
   GV II = 0.05mg/m3
TVOC (total volatile organic compounds)   2505 360.0 1572.0 1000
[NB 6]
Seifert: TVOC assessment
   concept[NB 5]
Ad-Hoc-AG: „Handout"
   [NB 6]
 

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6.1. Abbreviations:

Ad-hoc-AG: Ad-hoc Arbeitsgruppe Innenraumrichtwerte der Innenraumlufthygiene-Kommission (UBA) and AG der Obersten Landesbehörden (AOLG) [Ad Hoc Working Group for Indoor Guideline Values of the Indoor Air Hygiene Commission of the Federal Environment Agency and the Indoor Air Working Group of the State-Level Health Authorities in Germany]

In particular: Ad-hoc-Arbeitsgruppe der Innenraumlufthygiene-Kommission des Umweltbundesamtes und der AGLMB [Ad Hoc Working Group of the Indoor Air Hygiene Commission of the Federal Environment Agency and the AGLMB] (1996): Richtwerte für die Innenraumluft: Basisschema [Indoor air guideline values: basic scheme]. Bundesgesundheitsblatt 39, p. 422-426. German
As well as Ad-hoc Arbeitsgruppe "Innenraumrichtwerte" der Innenraumlufthygiene-Kommission (IRK) des Umweltbundesamtes und der Obersten Landesgesundheitsbehörden [Ad Hoc Working Group for Indoor Guideline Values of the Indoor Air Hygiene Commission (IRK) of the Federal Environment Agency and the Indoor Air Working Group of the State-Level Health Authorities in Germany] (2012): Richtwerte für die Innenraumluft: erste Fortschreibung des Basisschemas [Indoor air guideline values: first update of the basic scheme]. Bundesgesundheitsblatt 55, p. 279-290 and the publications regarding the guideline values on the home page of the Federal Environment Agency at http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/ad-hoc-working-group-for-indoor-air-guide-values-0

B.A.U.CH.: Beratung und Analyse – Verein für Umweltchemie [Consulting and Analysis – Association for Environmental Chemistry]

BGA: Bundesgesundheitsamt [Federal Health Office in Germany];
(in the meantime part of it merged into the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment)

In particular: "Zur Gültigkeit des 0,1-ppm-Wertes für Formaldehyd [On the validity of the 0.1 ppm value for formaldehyde]". Bundesgesundheitsblatt 35 (1992) p. 482-483. German

BImSchV: Bundesimmissionsschutzverordnung [Ordinances to the Federal Immission Control Act in Germany]

In particular: 2. BImSchV (10 December 1990, last amended by Article 1 of the Ordinance from 2 May 2013): Verordnung zur Emissionsbegrenzung von leichtflüchtigen halogenierten organischen Verbindungen [Ordinance limiting emissions of volatile halogenated organic compounds] German

In particular: 39. BImSchV (2010): Verordnung über Luftqualitätsstandards und Emissionshöchstmengen [Ordinance on air quality standards and emission ceilings] German

BMLFUW: Bundesministerium für Land- und Forstwirtschaft, Umwelt und Wasserwirtschaft [Federal Ministry for Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management in Austria]

In particular: Indoor Air Working Group at the BMLFUW and the Austrian Academy of Sciences Refer to the link: http://www.innenraumanalytik.at/

BUI: Bremer Umweltinstitut [Bremen Environmental Institute]

In particular: ZORN, C.; KÖHLER, M.; WEIS; N.; SCHARENBERG, W (2005): Proposal for assessment of indoor air polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). 10th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate. Beijing, China

See also www.bremer-umweltinstitut.de

BWG = Hamburger Behörde für Soziales, Familie, Gesundheit und Verbraucherschutz, früher Hamburger Behörde Umwelt und Gesundheit bzw. Gesundheit und Soziales [Hamburg Office for Social Affairs, Family, Health and Consumer Protection, formerly Hamburg Office for Science and Health or Health and Social Affairs, respectively]

In particular: VOC-Tabelle 1: http://www.hamburg.de/contentblob/122306/data/voc-tab1.pdf and VOC-Tabelle 2: http://www.hamburg.de/contentblob/122308/data/voc-tab2.pdf.

GV = guidelines value[in German documents: RW = Richtwert]

pGV = provisional guideline value[in German documents: vRW = vorläufiger Richtwert]

WHO: World Health Organization

In particular: WHO air quality guidelines for Europe, second edition, 2000
http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/74732/E71922.pdf

WHO-Leitlinien zur Raumluftqualität: Ausgewählte Schadstoffe (2010) [WHO guidelines for indoor air quality: selected pollutants]
http://www.euro.who.int/en/publications/abstracts/who-guidelines-for-indoor-air-quality-selected-pollutants

WIR = Wirkungsbezogene Innenraumrichtwerte [effect-based indoor guideline values]

 

6.2. Annotations:

[NB 1]: An exposure to naphthalene can indicate the presence of a more complex exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. It is recommended to check for the latter and to adjust the assessment accordingly.

[NB 2]: To a great degree, formaldehyde concentrations are dependent on the climatic conditions of a given space or emission source, respectively. When formaldehyde concentrations of 60 µg/m³ are exceeded at climatic conditions that are associated with a low rate of emissions from materials, we know from experience that, when the emission sources stay the same but the climatic conditions change, this can result in exposures within the range of WHO or BGA guideline values (e.g. winter/summer effects). This fact can be accounted for by a test value that is meant to encourage retesting formaldehyde exposures at other climatic conditions where applicable.

[NB 3]: Sagunski H (2006): Formaldehyd, eine Innenraum-Geschichte [Formaldehyde, an indoor air history]. In: Bayerisches Landesamt für Gesundheit und Lebensmittelsicherheit Ed. by Materialien zur Umwelt¬medizin. Aktuelle umweltmedizinische Probleme in Innenräumen, Part. 1 Vol. 13. p. 60-70 German

[NB 4] In a recent statement, the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment confirmed that formaldehyde is considered carcinogenic when inhaled. However, the effect is said to be dependent on the concentration and in this assessment the currently valid guideline value of 0.1 ppm (124 µg/m³) is reconfirmed, at which virtually no carcinogenic effect is to be expected.

Ad-hoc-AG: Krebserzeugende Wirkung von Formaldehyd – Änderung des Richtwertes für die Innenraumluft von 0,1 ppm nicht erforderlich [Carcinogenic effect of formaldehyde—Changing the threshold level of 0.1 ppm for indoor air not necessary]. Bundesgesundheitsblatt 11 p.1169 Available at: http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/sites/default/files/medien/pdfs/Formaldehyd.pdf German

[NB 5]: The Indoor Air Hygiene Commission of the Federal Environment Agency in Germany (IRK) suggests that in indoor spaces, where humans are intended to spend longer periods of time, the TVOC value between one and three milligrams per cubic meter should not be exceeded in the long term; also see: Seifert, Bernd (1999): Richtwerte für die Innenraumluft. Die Beurteilung der Innenraumluftqualität mit Hilfe der Summe der flüchtigen organischen Verbindungen (TVOC-Wert) [Indoor air guideline values: indoor air quality assessment by means of the sum total of volatile organic compounds (TVOC value)]. In: Bundesgesundheitsblatt - Gesundheitsforschung- Gesundheitsschutz, vol. 42, p. 270–278. German

[NB 6]: Ad-hoc-AG: Beurteilung von Innenraumluftkontaminationen mittels Referenz- und Richtwerten [Ad-hoc-AG: Assessment of indoor air contaminations through reference and guideline values]. Bundesgesundheitsblatt 7 p. 990-1004 (2007) German

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